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Arkansas State University

Citation Style Guide : APA

Basic introduction into AMA, APA, Chicago, MLA and Turabian citation styles.

APA Publication Manual

APA Manual 7th Edition Cover

Resources

APA citation is used primarly for psychology, education and other social sciences.

If you need more information than what is given in this guide, try the following sources: 

More from the Online Writing Lab (OWL)

From Purdue University:
 

Using Research
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/9/


For the OWL handout on APA style:
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Notice

This is only intended to be a guide. Your professor may have specific or additional requirements not listed in this guide.

APA Citation Style

Note: APA uses strict capitalizing rules. Only capitalize:

  • Names
  • Journal names
  • The first word in a phrase or title
  • The first word after a colon (:)
  • Abbreviations

Citations by Formats - 7th Edition Rules

Print books:
Print books are ones you can hold in your hands.
 

Format:

 

Author Last Name(s), First Initial. (copyright year). Book title. Publisher's Name.

     

Example:

 

Meyer, S. (2005). Twilight. Little, Brown and Co.

Online Books without DOI:
Online books are any that you need a computer to read. Sometimes they are referred to as eBooks or electronic books.  DOI stands for digital object identifier. 
 

Format:

 

Author Last Name(s), First Initial. (copyright year). Book title. Publisher's Name. DOI or URL

     

Example:

 

Collin, P.H. (2006). Dictionary of business. A & C Black. http://www.credoreference.com/vol/525 

Print Journals:
Print journals are periodicals, magazines, newspapers, etc. you can hold in your hands.
 

Format:

 

Author Last Name(s), First Initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), inclusive pages.

     

Example:

 

Richards, B. (2008). Henry James, Oscar Wilde and aesthetic culture. Essays in Criticism, 58(4), 363-369.

Online Journals with DOI:
Online journals are periodicals, magazines, newspapers, etc that you need a computer to read. Sometimes they are referred to as eJournals or electronic journals.  DOI stands for digital object identifier.  If one is assigned, use this example.  If not, use the example below.
 

Format:

 

Author Last Name(s), First Initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal Name, vol(issue), inclusive pages. DOI URL

     

Example:

 

Armstrong, S. (2009). Bambi vs. Godzilla: On the nature, purpose, and practice of the movie business. Journal of Popular Culture, 42(3), 554-555. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2009.00696.x

Web Sites

Format:

  Author Last Name(s), First Initial (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). (Date of publication) (if no date, then use n.d.). Title (or, if no title is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Website name (leave off if same as author). URL
     
Example:   Klee, M. (2019). Spongebob Squarepants is an icon of fluid masculinity. Mel Magazine. https://melmagazine.com/en-us/story/spongebob-squarepants-stephen-hillenburg-masculinity

Formatting Your Paper

APA Spacing Example

Formatting

  • Use 1" margins
  • 12pt Times New Roman font
  • Doublespace
     

Page number

  • Flushed with the right margin.
     

Header

  • Should be in all caps.
  • Flushed with left margin.
  • There is a limit of 50 characters, including spaces, so you may need to use a shortened title for your header.

 
Title

  • Centered
  • Nouns and major words capitalized
     

Headings

Level 1 headings (start of new section) - Bold and centered with nouns and major words capitalized.

Level 2 headings (start of a new point within a section) - Bold and flushed left with nouns and major words capitalized.

Level 3 headings (Additional breakdown within a Level 2 section) - Bold and indented in 1/2". Only capitalize first letter and proper nouns. End with a period.

APA Title Page Example

Formatting

  • Use 1" margins
  • 12pt Times New Roman font
  • Doublespace
     

Page number

  • Flushed with the right margin.
     

Header

  • Include "Running head:" before the title. Following pages will not include "Running head:."
  • Should be in all caps.
  • Flushed with left margin.
  • There is a limit of 50 characters, including spaces, so you may need to use a shortened title for your header.

 
Title, author name and instution

  • Centered
  • Doublespaced.
  • Do not underline, bold or italicize your title.
APA Reference Page

Formatting

  • Use 1" margins
  • 12pt Times New Roman font
  • Doublespace
     

Page number

  • Flushed with the right margin.
     

Header

  • Should be in all caps.
  • Flushed with left margin.
  • There is a limit of 50 characters, including spaces, so you may need to use a shortened title for your header.

 
References Title

  • Title the page "References"
  • Centered
  • Do not underline, bold or italicize.
     

Indentation

A hanging indent is when the first line of text is flushed with the margin while the other lines within the text are indented in.

Here's how to create hanging indents in Microsoft Word:
 

Step 1:

Select the text you want to be hanging indents

       Selecting the text

Step 2:

From the "Page Layout" tab, click on the Paragraph Settings icon.

Menu Select

Step 3:

In the middle of this box will be your indentation options.

Under "Special" select "Hanging" then hit the "OK" button.

       Selecting the indentation

Success!

You have have hanging indents!

       Final Product